Healthy Communities: Avoidable deaths and life expectancies in 2009–2011 - Report - Key findings

Healthy Communities: Avoidable deaths and life expectancies in 2009–2011

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Key findings

During the three calendar years from 2009 to the end of 2011, over 33,000 Australians died prematurely each year on average from causes that might have been avoided through better prevention or medical treatment. These deaths accounted for two-thirds (66%) of all deaths before the age of 75.

Six causes accounted for just over 50% of all potentially avoidable deaths – ischaemic heart disease, lung cancer, suicide and self-inflicted injuries, bowel cancer, stroke and breast cancer.

Among these deaths, 20,438 deaths (61%) were potentially preventable through better health activities such as screening, good nutrition and healthy habits such as exercise, and 12,858 deaths (39%) could have potentially been avoided with medical care. More information on the causes of potentially preventable and treatable deaths is provided in Table 1.

Differences between Medicare Local catchments

Potentially avoidable deaths

During the three calendar years from 2009 to the end of 2011, the average age-standardised rate of potentially avoidable deaths each year was more than three times higher in some Medicare Local catchments compared to others, ranging from 96 deaths per 100,000 people on average per year in Inner East Melbourne to 316 deaths per 100,000 people in Central and North West Queensland (Potentially avoidable deaths section on Key findings page and Fair Comparisons section on Key findings page).

Rates of potentially avoidable deaths in rural lower-income communities (Rural 2 peer group) were more than twice as high as wealthier inner-city suburbs (Metro 1 peer group) (Table 2).

However, there were differences across similar Medicare Local catchments even after accounting for broad geographic and demographic circumstances.

  • Across metropolitan areas, the age-standardised rate of potentially avoidable deaths was 32% higher in the lower-income urban catchments (Metro 3 peer group, 152 deaths per 100,000 people) compared to the wealthiest inner-city catchments (Metro 1, 115 deaths per 100,000 people)
  • Across regional areas, the age-standardised rate of potentially avoidable deaths was 9% higher in the lower-income catchments (Regional 2 peer group, 171 deaths per 100,000 people) compared to the wealthier catchments (Regional 1, 157 deaths per 100,000 people)
  • Across rural areas, the age-standardised rate of potentially avoidable deaths was 30% higher in the Rural 2 peer group (244 deaths per 100,000 people) compared to Rural 1 (187 deaths per 100,000 people).

There were also large differences in rates of potentially avoidable deaths between males and females, particularly those deaths that are potentially preventable (Potentially avoidable deaths: differences between males and females section on Key findings page and Table 3 on Key findings page).

Potentially avoidable deaths include both preventable and treatable deaths.

Potentially preventable deaths

Potentially preventable deaths are those that occur prematurely that might have been avoided through better health activities such as screening, good nutrition and healthy habits such as exercise.

The age-standardised rate of potentially preventable deaths was almost four times higher in some Medicare Local catchments compared to others, ranging from 53 deaths per 100,000 people on average per year in Northern Sydney to 206 deaths per 100,000 people in Central and North West Queensland (Potentially preventable deaths section on Key findings page and Fair Comparisons section on Key findings page).

Yet there were differences across similar Medicare Local catchments even after accounting for broad geographic and demographic circumstances.

  • Across metropolitan areas, the age-standardised rate of potentially preventable deaths was 33% higher in the lower-income urban catchments (Metro 3 peer group, 92 deaths per 100,000 people) compared to the wealthiest inner-city catchments (Metro 1, 69 deaths per 100,000 people)
  • Across regional areas, the age-standardised rate of potentially preventable deaths was 12% higher in the lower-income catchments (Regional 2 peer group, 109 deaths per 100,000 people) compared to the wealthier catchments (Regional 1, 97 deaths per 100,000 people)
  • Across rural areas, the age-standardised rate of potentially preventable deaths was 33% higher in the Rural 2 peer group (156 deaths per 100,000 people) compared to Rural 1 (117 deaths per 100,000 people).

Potentially treatable deaths

Potentially treatable deaths are a particular focus of this report because they closely reflect how well local medical systems are performing.

Potentially treatable deaths are those that occur prematurely that might have been avoided through better medical services and therapeutic interventions, such as surgery or medication.

The age-standardised rate of potentially treatable deaths was almost three times higher in some Medicare Local catchments compared to others, ranging from 41 deaths per 100,000 people on average per year in Inner East Melbourne to 110 deaths per 100,000 people in Central and North West Queensland (Potentially treatable deaths section on Key findings page and Fair Comparisons section on Key findings page).

Yet there were differences across similar Medicare Local catchments even after accounting for broad geographic and socioeconomic circumstances.

  • Across metropolitan areas, the age-standardised rate of potentially treatable deaths was 30% higher in the lower-income urban catchments (Metro 3 peer group, 60 deaths per 100,000 people) compared to the wealthiest inner-city catchments (Metro 1, 46 deaths per 100,000 people)
  • Across regional areas, the age-standardised rate of potentially treatable deaths was 3% higher in the lower-income catchments (Regional 2 peer group, 62 deaths per 100,000 people) compared to the wealthier catchments (Regional 1, 60 deaths per 100,000 people)
  • Across rural areas, the age-standardised rate of potentially treatable deaths was 23% higher in the Rural 2 peer group (87 deaths per 100,000 people) compared to Rural 1 (71 deaths per 100,000 people).

Table 2: Potentially avoidable deaths*, treatable and preventable, age-standardised, by Medicare Local catchment, 2009–2011

Image displaying ates of potentially avoidable deaths per 100,000 people per year, age standardised by Medical Local catchment during 2009–2011.

The classification of potentially avoidable deaths are split into Deaths greater or equal to 75 years or less than 75 years (premature). Premature deaths are then split further into unavoidable deaths and avoidable. Avoidable deaths are comprised of two categories: Preventable and Treatable as shown in the following table: Show tabular data Hide tabular data
Medicare Local peer groups Rates of potentially avoidable deaths per 100,000 people per year, age standardised Number of deaths per year
Treatable Preventable
Metro 1 46 69 4,189
Inner East Melbourne 41 55 623
Northern Sydney 44 53 384
Sydney North Shore & Beaches 42 55 434
Australian Capital Territory 46 73 390
Bayside§ 47 74 695
Eastern Sydney§ 49 81 442
Inner NW Melbourne 50 83 498
Inner West Sydney 55 85 724
Metro 2 53 82 7,712
South Eastern Sydney§ 47 65 518
Perth North Metro§ 48 74 569
Eastern Melbourne 49 73 497
Fremantle 45 80 283
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is. 53 77 555
Perth Central & East Metro 50 83 577
Gold Coast§ 53 86 743
Metro North Brisbane 55 84 1,142
Bentley-Armadale 57 88 520
Central Adelaide & Hills§ 58 87 770
South Western Melbourne§ 57 91 294
Greater Metro South Brisbane§ 57 95 1,243
Metro 3 60 92 5,525
Northern Melbourne 54 82 776
Western Sydney 60 85 1,065
South Eastern Melbourne 57 91 608
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb 60 90 619
South Western Sydney§ 61 93 1,226
Northern Adelaide§ 66 104 661
West Moreton-Oxley 65 111 571
Regional 1 60 97 4,895
Sunshine Coast§ 50 86 566
Nepean-Blue Mountains 60 91 506
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula§ 60 95 470
Barwon§ 59 98 461
Perth South Coastal 56 103 368
Illawarra-Shoalhaven 61 101 691
Hunter 66 98 1,235
Central Coast NSW 63 106 598
Regional 2 62 109 7,401
Great South Coast 57 92 165
South West WA 51 106 478
Country South SA 59 101 238
Hume 58 102 359
North Coast NSW 58 109 963
Southern NSW 66 101 382
Murrumbidgee 65 105 329
Loddon-Mallee-Murray 67 104 418
Tasmania 62 111 976
Wide Bay 61 113 443
Darling Downs-SW Qld 65 111 542
Grampians 68 112 412
Goulburn Valley 59 122 285
Gippsland§ 66 116 539
New England§ 72 109 367
Western NSW§ 65 120 505
Rural 1 71 117 1,670
Lower Murray 60 106 117
Townsville-Mackay 70 115 671
Country North SA 70 116 408
Central Qld 71 119 366
Far West NSW§ 97 158 108
Rural 2 87 156 1,587
Far North Qld§ 79 138 548
Goldfields-Midwest 81 141 257
Northern Territory§ 99 174 490
Kimberley-Pilbara§ 105 189 177
Central & NW Qld 110 206 117
AUSTRALIA 58 93 33,295
Margin for error indicator
95% confidence interval
*
Potentially avoidable deaths are deaths before the age of 75 that are preventable and/or treatable within Australian health and social systems.
Age standardised to the total Australian population as at 30 June 2001.
The number of deaths may vary across Medicare Local catchments with similar rates due to differences in the size of Medicare Local populations.
§
Due to separate rounding of data values, the total of treatable and preventable does not match the published value for potentially avoidable deaths.
#
Australia total includes deaths not attributable to Medicare Local catchments where place of usual residence is unknown.
Sources:
Australian Bureau of Statistics Causes of Death 2009–2011 and Australian Bureau of Statistics Estimated Resident Population 2009–2011.

Potentially avoidable deaths
Years of data: 2009–2011

During 2009–2011, the average number of age-standardised potentially avoidable deaths varied across Medicare Local catchments and across peer groups, ranging from 96 to 316 deaths per 100,000 people.

Number of potentially avoidable deaths per 100,000 people, age-standardised, 2009–2011

Results for Medicare Local catchments were ranked from highest to lowest and then split into five equal-sized groups.1 The range within each of the five groups was as follows:

The following image is a map of Australia showing the number of potentially avoidable deaths with Medicare Local reference codes. Data can be found in the Fair comparisons section.

The following is a legend for the maps detailed on this page. The first row shows the various colour ranges, the second is the relevant colour's range value and the third indicates which end is highest and lowest.
96 – 130
131 – 149
150 – 166
167 – 181
182 – 316
Lowest group
Highest group
Medicare Local catchment boundary
506
Numbers on map are Medicare Local reference codes
The following are images of maps around major cities showing the number of potentially avoidable deaths with Medicare Local reference codes. Data can be found in the Fair comparisons section.

i. Perth and
surrounding areas

ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas

iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas

iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas

v. Sydney and
surrounding areas

vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas

Notes:
  • Deaths are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which a person usually resided, irrespective of where the person died.
  • Potentially avoidable deaths are deaths before the age of 75 that are preventable and/or treatable within Australian health and social systems.
  • Age standardisation allows fairer comparisons between Medicare Local catchments by accounting for age variation in their populations. Age-standardised data should only be used for comparison purposes.
Sources:
Australian Bureau of Statistics Causes of Death 2009–2011 and Australian Bureau of Statistics Estimated Resident Population 2009–2011.

Data can be downloaded from Explore the data.

Fair comparisons

To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each Medicare Local catchment has been grouped into one of seven peer groups2, based on remoteness and socioeconomic status. This allows:

  • Medicare Local catchments to be compared within the same metropolitan, regional or rural peer group, and
  • Medicare Local catchments to be compared with the average for their peer group.

It also allows variation to be seen across peer groups that may be associated with remoteness and socioeconomic status.

See the PDF ReportOpens in a new window. for a graphical representation of the table below.

Peer groups Map reference Number of potentially avoidable deaths
Metro 1 115
Inner East Melbourne 206 96
Northern Sydney 107 97
Sydney North Shore & Beaches 108 97
Australian Capital Territory 801 119
Bayside 202 122
Eastern Sydney 101 129
Inner NW Melbourne 201 133
Inner West Sydney 102 140
Metro 2 135
South Eastern Sydney 103 111
Perth North Metro 502 121
Eastern Melbourne 207 122
Fremantle 503 125
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is. 403 130
Perth Central & East Metro 501 133
Gold Coast 303 138
Metro North Brisbane 301 139
Bentley-Armadale 504 145
Central Adelaide & Hills 402 146
South Western Melbourne 203 147
Greater Metro South Brisbane 302 151
Metro 3 152
Northern Melbourne 205 136
Western Sydney 105 145
South Eastern Melbourne 208 148
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb 204 150
South Western Sydney 104 153
Northern Adelaide 401 171
West Moreton-Oxley 305 176
Regional 1 157
Sunshine Coast 304 135
Nepean-Blue Mountains 106 151
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209 154
Barwon 210 158
Perth South Coastal 505 159
Illawarra-Shoalhaven 110 162
Hunter 111 164
Central Coast NSW 109 169
Regional 2 171
Great South Coast 212 149
South West WA 506 157
Country South SA 404 160
Hume 216 160
North Coast NSW 113 167
Southern NSW 117 167
Murrumbidgee 116 170
Loddon-Mallee-Murray 214 171
Tasmania 601 173
Wide Bay 307 174
Darling Downs-SW Qld 306 176
Grampians 211 180
Goulburn Valley 215 181
Gippsland 217 181
New England 114 182
Western NSW 115 184
Rural 1 187
Lower Murray 213 166
Townsville-Mackay 310 185
Country North SA 405 186
Central Qld 308 190
Far West NSW 118 254
Rural 2 244
Far North Qld 311 216
Goldfields-Midwest 507 222
Northern Territory 701 274
Kimberley-Pilbara 508 293
Central & NW Qld 309 316

More information can be found at http://www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au and in this report’s Technical Supplement.

Potentially preventable deaths
Years of data: 2009–2011

During 2009–2011, the average number of age-standardised potentially preventable deaths varied across Medicare Local catchments and across peer groups, ranging from 53 to 206 deaths per 100,000 people.

Number of potentially preventable deaths per 100,000 people, age-standardised, 2009–2011

Results for Medicare Local catchments were ranked from highest to lowest and then split into five equal-sized groups.1 The range within each of the five groups was as follows:

The following image is a map of Australia showing the number of potentially preventable deaths with Medicare Local reference codes. Data can be found in the Fair comparisons section.

The following is a legend for the maps detailed on this page. The first row shows the various colour ranges, the second is the relevant colour's range value and the third indicates which end is highest and lowest.
53 – 82
83 – 91
92 – 103
104 – 113
114 – 206
Lowest group
Highest group
Medicare Local catchment boundary
404
Numbers on map are Medicare Local reference codes
The following are images of maps around major cities showing the number of potentially preventable deaths with Medicare Local reference codes. Data can be found in the Fair comparisons section.

i. Perth and
surrounding areas

ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas

iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas

iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas

v. Sydney and
surrounding areas

vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas

Notes:
  • Deaths are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which a person usually resided, irrespective of where the person died.
  • Potentially preventable deaths are deaths before the age of 75 that are responsive to preventive health activities such as screening and primary prevention.
  • Age standardisation allows fairer comparisons between Medicare Local catchments by accounting for age variation in their populations. age-standardised data should only be used for comparison purposes.
Sources:
Australian Bureau of Statistics Causes of Death 2009–2011 and Australian Bureau of Statistics Estimated Resident Population 2009–2011.

Data can be downloaded from Explore the data.

Fair comparisons

To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each Medicare Local catchment has been grouped into one of seven peer groups2, based on remoteness and socioeconomic status. This allows:

  • Medicare Local catchments to be compared within the same metropolitan, regional or rural peer group, and
  • Medicare Local catchments to be compared with the average for their peer group.

It also allows variation to be seen across peer groups that may be associated with remoteness and socioeconomic status.

See the PDF ReportOpens in a new window. for a graphical representation of the table below.

Peer groups Map reference Number of potentially preventable deaths
Metro 1 69
Northern Sydney 107 53
Sydney North Shore & Beaches 108 55
Inner East Melbourne 206 55
Australian Capital Territory 801 73
Bayside 202 74
Eastern Sydney 101 81
Inner NW Melbourne 201 83
Inner West Sydney 102 85
Metro 2 82
South Eastern Sydney 103 65
Eastern Melbourne 207 73
Perth North Metro 502 74
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is. 403 77
Fremantle 503 80
Perth Central & East Metro 501 83
Metro North Brisbane 301 84
Gold Coast 303 86
Central Adelaide & Hills 402 87
Bentley-Armadale 504 88
South Western Melbourne 203 91
Greater Metro South Brisbane 302 95
Metro 3 92
Northern Melbourne 205 82
Western Sydney 105 85
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb 204 90
South Eastern Melbourne 208 91
South Western Sydney 104 93
Northern Adelaide 401 104
West Moreton-Oxley 305 111
Regional 1 97
Sunshine Coast 304 86
Nepean-Blue Mountains 106 91
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209 95
Hunter 111 98
Barwon 210 98
Illawarra-Shoalhaven 110 101
Perth South Coastal 505 103
Central Coast NSW 109 106
Regional 2 109
Great South Coast 212 92
Southern NSW 117 101
Country South SA 404 101
Hume 216 102
Loddon-Mallee-Murray 214 104
Murrumbidgee 116 105
South West WA 506 106
North Coast NSW 113 109
New England 114 109
Darling Downs-SW Qld 306 111
Tasmania 601 111
Grampians 211 112
Wide Bay 307 113
Gippsland 217 116
Western NSW 115 120
Goulburn Valley 215 122
Rural 1 117
Lower Murray 213 106
Townsville-Mackay 310 115
Country North SA 405 116
Central Qld 308 119
Far West NSW 118 158
Rural 2 156
Far North Qld 311 138
Goldfields-Midwest 507 141
Northern Territory 701 174
Kimberley-Pilbara 508 189
Central & NW Qld 309 206

More information can be found at http://www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au and in this report’s Technical Supplement.

Deaths from potentially treatable conditions
Years of data: 2009–2011

During 2009–2011, the average number of deaths from potentially treatable conditions varied across Medicare Local catchments and across peer groups, ranging from 41 to 110 deaths per 100,000 people.

Number of deaths from potentially treatable conditions per 100,000 people, age-standardised, 2009–2011

Results for Medicare Local catchments were ranked from highest to lowest and then split into five equal-sized groups.1 The range within each of the five groups was as follows:

The following image is a map of Australia showing the number of deaths from potentially treatable conditions with Medicare Local reference codes. Data can be found in the Fair comparisons section.

The following is a legend for the maps detailed on this page. The first row shows the various colour ranges, the second is the relevant colour's range value and the third indicates which end is highest and lowest.
41 – 50
51 – 57
58 – 60
61 – 66
67 – 110
Lowest group
Highest group
Medicare Local catchment boundary
404
Numbers on map are Medicare Local reference codes
The following are images of maps around major cities showing the number of deaths from potentially treatable conditions with Medicare Local reference codes. Data can be found in the Fair comparisons section.

i. Perth and
surrounding areas

ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas

iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas

iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas

v. Sydney and
surrounding areas

vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas

Notes:
  • Deaths are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which a person usually resided, irrespective of where the person died.
  • Deaths from potentially treatable conditions are those before the age of 75 responsive to therapeutic interventions, such as surgery or medication, and reflect the safety and quality of the current treatment system.
  • Age standardisation allows fairer comparisons between Medicare Local catchments by accounting for age variation in their populations. age-standardised data should only be used for comparison purposes.
Sources:
Australian Bureau of Statistics Causes of Death 2009–2011 and Australian Bureau of Statistics Estimated Resident Population 2009–2011.

Data can be downloaded from Explore the data.

Fair comparisons

To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each Medicare Local catchment has been grouped into one of seven peer groups2, based on remoteness and socioeconomic status. This allows:

  • Medicare Local catchments to be compared within the same metropolitan, regional or rural peer group, and
  • Medicare Local catchments to be compared with the average for their peer group.

It also allows variation to be seen across peer groups that may be associated with remoteness and socioeconomic status.

See the PDF ReportOpens in a new window. for a graphical representation of the table below.

Peer groups Map reference Number of potentially treatable deaths
Metro 1 46
Inner East Melbourne 206 41
Sydney North Shore & Beaches 107 44
Northern Sydney 108 42
Sydney North Shore & Beaches 107 44
Australian Capital Territory 801 46
Bayside 202 47
Eastern Sydney 101 49
Inner NW Melbourne 201 50
Inner West Sydney 102 55
Metro 2 53
Fremantle 503 45
South Eastern Sydney 103 47
Perth North Metro 502 48
Eastern Melbourne 207 49
Perth Central & East Metro 501 50
Gold Coast 303 53
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is. 403 53
Metro North Brisbane 301 55
Greater Metro South Brisbane 302 57
South Western Melbourne 203 57
Bentley-Armadale 504 57
Central Adelaide & Hills 402 58
Metro 3 60
Northern Melbourne 205 54
South Eastern Melbourne 208 57
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb 204 60
Western Sydney 105 60
South Western Sydney 104 61
West Moreton-Oxley 305 65
Northern Adelaide 401 66
Regional 1 60
Sunshine Coast 304 50
Perth South Coastal 505 56
Barwon 210 59
Nepean-Blue Mountains 106 60
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209 60
Illawarra-Shoalhaven 110 61
Central Coast NSW 109 63
Hunter 111 66
Regional 2 62
South West WA 506 51
Great South Coast 212 57
North Coast NSW 113 58
Hume 216 58
Country South SA 404 59
Goulburn Valley 215 59
Wide Bay 307 61
Tasmania 601 62
Western NSW 115 65
Murrumbidgee 116 65
Darling Downs-SW Qld 306 65
Gippsland 217 66
Southern NSW 117 66
Loddon-Mallee-Murray 214 67
Grampians 211 68
New England 114 72
Rural 1 71
Lower Murray 213 60
Country North SA 405 70
Townsville-Mackay 310 70
Central Qld 308 71
Far West NSW 118 97
Rural 2 87
Far North Qld 311 79
Goldfields-Midwest 507 81
Northern Territory 701 99
Kimberley-Pilbara 508 105
Central & NW Qld 309 110

More information can be found at http://www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au and in this report’s Technical Supplement.

Potentially avoidable deaths: differences between males and females

Across all Medicare Local catchments, there were large differences in rates of potentially avoidable deaths between males and females (Table 3).

  • For males, rates of potentially avoidable deaths were three times higher in the Medicare Local catchment with the highest rate, compared to the Medicare Local with the lowest rate. The rates ranged from 114 deaths per 100,000 people on average per year in Sydney North Shore and Beaches to 361 deaths per 100,000 people in Central and North West Queensland
  • For females, rates of potentially avoidable deaths were almost four times higher in the Medicare Local catchment with the highest rate, compared to the Medicare Local with the lowest rate. The rates ranged from 72 deaths per 100,000 people on average per year in Inner East Melbourne to 264 deaths per 100,000 people in Central and North West Queensland.

Most of these differences between males and females were due to potentially preventable conditions. During the three calendar years from 2009 to the end of 2011, two-thirds (67%) of all potentially avoidable deaths in males were from potentially preventable causes. In comparison, 52% of potentially avoidable deaths in females were from potentially preventable causes.

Potentially preventable deaths across Medicare Local catchments

  • For males, rates were more than three times higher in the Medicare Local catchment with the highest rate, compared to the Medicare Local with the lowest rate. The rates ranged from 73 deaths per 100,000 people on average per year in Sydney North Shore and Beaches to 253 deaths per 100,000 people in Central and North West Queensland
  • For females, rates were five times higher in the Medicare Local catchment with the highest rate, compared to the Medicare Local with the lowest rate. The rates ranged from 32 deaths per 100,000 people on average per year in Northern Sydney to 151 deaths per 100,000 people in Central and North West Queensland.

Potentially treatable deaths across Medicare Local catchments

  • For males, rates were three times higher in the Medicare Local catchment with the highest rate, compared to the Medicare Local with the lowest rate. The rates ranged from 41 deaths per 100,000 people on average per year in Sydney North Shore and Beaches to 120 deaths per 100,000 people in Far West NSW
  • For females, rates were three times higher in the Medicare Local catchment with the highest rate, compared to the Medicare Local with the lowest rate. The rates ranged from 39 deaths per 100,000 people on average per year in Inner East Melbourne to 121 deaths per 100,000 people in Kimberley-Pilbara.

More information on the causes of potentially avoidable, preventable and treatable deaths for males and females is provided in Table 1.

Table 3: Potentially avoidable deaths* for males and females, age-standardised, by Medicare Local catchment, 2009–2011

The following image shows the rates of potentially avoidable deaths per 100,000 people per year for males and females, age-standardised, by Medicare Local catchment, 2009–2011. Potentially avoidable deaths are those that occur prematurely (before the age of 75) that potentially could have been avoided through better prevention or health care.

The following link expands the table data. Show tabular data Hide tabular data
Rates of potentially avoidable deaths per 100,000 people per year, age standardised
Medicare Local peer groups Males Females
Metro 1 147 85
Inner East Melbourne 122 72
Northern Sydney 121 73
Sydney North Shore & Beaches 114 81
Australian Capital Territory 143 95
Bayside 157 88
Eastern Sydney 163 96
Inner NW Melbourne 179 92
Inner West Sydney 183 98
Metro 2 172 99
South Eastern Sydney 144 81
Perth North Metro 153 91
Eastern Melbourne 150 95
Fremantle 162 89
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is. 171 91
Perth Central & East Metro 171 95
Gold Coast 178 99
Metro North Brisbane 177 102
Bentley-Armadale 191 100
Central Adelaide & Hills 188 106
South Western Melbourne 177 118
Greater Metro South Brisbane 190 113
Metro 3 192 112
Northern Melbourne 176 98
Western Sydney 179 111
South Eastern Melbourne 191 105
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb 192 107
South Western Sydney 197 111
Northern Adelaide 210 133
West Moreton-Oxley 220 132
Regional 1 200 115
Sunshine Coast 176 96
Nepean-Blue Mountains 187 116
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 193 118
Barwon 202 114
Perth South Coastal 203 115
Illawarra-Shoalhaven 202 123
Hunter 208 120
Central Coast NSW 224 117
Regional 2 218 124
Great South Coast 194 104
South West WA 208 104
Country South SA 208 110
Hume 202 119
North Coast NSW 216 119
Southern NSW 205 128
Murrumbidgee 216 122
Loddon-Mallee-Murray 215 126
Tasmania 214 132
Wide Bay 230 118
Darling Downs-SW Qld 229 123
Grampians 228 131
Goulburn Valley 229 132
Gippsland 231 131
New England 223 140
Western NSW 227 141
Rural 1 236 135
Lower Murray 228 103
Townsville-Mackay 228 138
Country North SA 230 138
Central Qld 238 138
Far West NSW 350 151
Rural 2 294 185
Far North Qld 268 161
Goldfields-Midwest 278 157
Northern Territory 327 211
Kimberley-Pilbara 321 259
Central & NW Qld 361 264
AUSTRALIA 192 110
Margin for error indicator
95% confidence interval
*
Potentially avoidable deaths are deaths before the age of 75 that are preventable and/or treatable within Australian health and social systems.
Age standardised to the total Australian population as at 30 June 2001.
Sources:
Australian Bureau of Statistics Causes of Death 2009–2011 and Australian Bureau of Statistics Estimated Resident Population 2009–2011.

Life expectancy at birth

Life expectancy at birth is an estimate of the average number of years a newborn baby is expected to live, assuming the average death rates at the time of the reporting period for the Medicare Local catchment in which they live continues throughout their lifetime.

During the three calendar years from 2009 to the end of 2011, life expectancy at birth varied across Medicare Local catchments ranging from 84.6 years in Northern Sydney to 76.1 years in Central and North West Queensland, a difference of 8.5 years in life expectancy.

  • For males, life expectancy at birth ranged across Medicare Local catchments from 83.2 years in Sydney North Shore and Beaches to 73.7 years in Central and North West Queensland, a difference of 9.5 years
  • For females, life expectancy at birth ranged across Medicare Local catchments from 86.2 years in Northern Sydney to 78.5 years in Central and North West Queensland, a difference of 7.7 years.

Yet there were differences across similar Medicare Local catchments even after accounting for broad geographic and demographic circumstances.

  • Across metropolitan areas, life expectancy was 81.7 years for males and 85.5 for females in the wealthiest inner-city catchments (Metro 1 peer group), which is 1.9 years higher for males and 1.3 years higher for females when compared to life expectancy in lower-income urban catchments (Metro 3)
  • Across regional areas, life expectancy was 79.3 years for males and 83.8 for females in the wealthier catchments (Regional 1 peer group), which is 0.9 years higher for males and 0.4 years higher for females when compared to life expectancy in lower-income regional catchments (Regional 2)
  • Across rural areas, life expectancy was 78.1 years for males and 83.0 for females in the Rural 1 peer group, which is 2.2 years higher for males and 2.3 years higher for females when compared to life expectancy in the Rural 2 peer group (Table 4).

Table 4: Life expectancy at birth for males and females, by Medicare Local catchment, 2009–2011

The following image shows the average life expectancy at birth for males and females, by Medicare Local catchment, 2009–2011. Life expectancy is the estimated life span of a newborn baby in a particular area based off of the death rates taken from the reporting period of 2009 to 2011 (inclusive).

The following link expands the table data. Show tabular data Hide tabular data
Life expectancy at birth (years)
Medicare Local peer groups Males Females
Metro 1 81.7 85.5
Northern Sydney 83.0 86.2
Inner East Melbourne 83.1 86.1
Sydney North Shore & Beaches 83.2 85.9
Bayside 81.3 84.9
Eastern Sydney 81.1 85.0
Inner NW Melbourne 80.7 85.2
Australian Capital Territory 81.0 84.8
Inner West Sydney 80.3 85.3
Metro 2 80.6 84.9
South Eastern Sydney 82.1 85.7
Fremantle 81.3 85.2
Perth North Metro 81.1 85.4
Eastern Melbourne 81.3 80.9
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is. 80.9 85.0
Gold Coast 80.4 85.2
Perth Central & East Metro 80.6 84.9
Bentley-Armadale 80.0 85.3
Metro North Brisbane 80.7 84.6
Greater Metro South Brisbane 80.3 84.4
South Western Melbourne 80.2 84.2
Central Adelaide & Hills 79.6 84.3
Metro 3 79.8 84.2
Northern Melbourne 80.5 84.5
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb 80.3 84.7
Western Sydney 80.6 84.4
South Eastern Melbourne 80.1 84.6
South Western Sydney 79.6 84.5
Northern Adelaide 79.5 82.8
West Moreton-Oxley 78.5 83.0
Regional 1 79.3 83.8
Sunshine Coast 80.1 85.1
Perth South Coastal 79.4 84.5
Nepean-Blue Mountains 79.6 83.9
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 79.7 83.7
Barwon 79.4 83.6
Illawarra-Shoalhaven 79.7 83.1
Central Coast NSW 78.6 83.5
Hunter 78.7 83.3
Regional 2 78.4 83.4
South West WA 79.4 84.6
Country South SA 79.4 84.4
Hume 78.9 83.9
Great South Coast 79.2 83.5
Southern NSW 78.8 83.6
North Coast NSW 78.2 84.0
Murrumbidgee 78.6 83.6
Darling Downs-SW Qld 78.4 83.7
Loddon-Mallee-Murray 78.4 83.6
Wide Bay 78.1 83.7
Goulburn Valley 78.1 83.0
Gippsland 77.9 83.1
New England 78.0 82.9
Tasmania 78.3 82.5
Grampians 78.0 82.3
Western NSW 77.8 82.3
Rural 1 78.1 83.0
Lower Murray 78.3 84.0
Central Qld 78.5 82.9
Townsville-Mackay 78.4 82.9
Country North SA 78.0 82.9
Far West NSW 73.9 81.8
Rural 2 75.9 80.7
Goldfields-Midwest 77.0 82.2
Far North Qld 76.7 81.7
Kimberley-Pilbara 76.7 78.6
Northern Territory 74.9 80.5
Central & NW Qld 73.7 78.5
AUSTRALIA 79.7 84.2
Notes:
  • Life expectancy at birth is the number of years of life that a person is expected to live at the time they are born. The measure assumes the age- and sex-specific death rate that applied to the Medicare Local catchment when the person was born continues throughout their lifetime.
  • To calculate death rates for life expectancy at birth, deaths are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which a person usually resided, irrespective of where the person died.
Sources:
Australian Bureau of Statistics Life Tables 2009–2011.

Life expectancy at birth
Years of data: 2009–2011

The number of years that a person born between 2009 and 2011 inclusive was expected to live varied across Medicare Local catchments and across peer groups, ranging from 76.1 to 84.6 years.

Estimated number of years a person is expected to live at birth, 2009–2011

Results for Medicare Local catchments were ranked from highest to lowest and then split into five equal-sized groups.1 The range within each of the five groups was as follows:

The following image is a map of Australia showing the life expectancy in number of years at birth with Medicare Local reference codes. Data can be found in the Fair comparisons section.

The following is a legend for the maps detailed on this page. The first row shows the various colour ranges, the second is the relevant colour's range value and the third indicates which end is highest and lowest.
76.1 – 80.4
80.5 – 81
81.1 – 82.0
82.1 – 82.8
82.9 – 84.6
Lowest group
Highest group
Medicare Local catchment boundary
506
Numbers on map are Medicare Local reference codes
The following are images of maps around major cities showing the life expectancy in number of years at birth with Medicare Local reference codes. Data can be found in the Fair comparisons section.

i. Perth and
surrounding areas

ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas

iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas

iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas

v. Sydney and
surrounding areas

vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas

Notes:
  • Life expectancy at birth is the number of years of life that a person is expected to live at the time they are born. The measure assumes the age- and sex-specific death rate that applied to the Medicare Local catchment when the person was born continues throughout their lifetime.
  • To calculate death rates for life expectancy at birth, deaths are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which a person usually resided, irrespective of where the person died.
Sources:
Australian Bureau of Statistics Life Tables 2009–2011.

Data can be downloaded from Explore the data.

Fair comparisons

To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each Medicare Local catchment has been grouped into one of seven peer groups2, based on remoteness and socioeconomic status. This allows:

  • Medicare Local catchments to be compared within the same metropolitan, regional or rural peer group, and
  • Medicare Local catchments to be compared with the average for their peer group.

It also allows variation to be seen across peer groups that may be associated with remoteness and socioeconomic status.

See the PDF ReportOpens in a new window. for a graphical representation of the table below.

Peer groups Map reference Life expectancy in years
Metro 1 83.6
Northern Sydney 107 84.6
Inner East Melbourne 206 84.5
Sydney North Shore & Beaches 108 84.5
Bayside 202 83.1
Eastern Sydney 101 83.0
Inner NW Melbourne 201 82.9
Australian Capital Territory 801 82.8
Inner West Sydney 102 82.8
Metro 2 82.7
South Eastern Sydney 103 83.9
Fremantle 503 83.2
Perth North Metro 502 83.2
Eastern Melbourne 207 83.1
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is. 403 82.9
Gold Coast 303 82.7
Perth Central & East Metro 501 82.7
Bentley-Armadale 504 82.6
Metro North Brisbane 301 82.6
Greater Metro South Brisbane 302 82.3
South Western Melbourne 203 82.1
Central Adelaide & Hills 402 81.9
Metro 3 82.0
Northern Melbourne 205 82.5
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb 204 82.5
Western Sydney 105 82.4
South Eastern Melbourne 208 82.3
South Western Sydney 104 82.0
Northern Adelaide 401 81.1
West Moreton-Oxley 305 80.7
Regional 1 81.5
Sunshine Coast 304 82.5
Perth South Coastal 505 81.9
Nepean-Blue Mountains 106 81.7
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209 81.7
Barwon 210 81.4
Illawarra-Shoalhaven 110 81.3
Central Coast NSW 109 81.0
Hunter 111 80.9
Regional 2 80.8
South West WA 506 81.9
Country South SA 404 81.8
Hume 216 81.4
Great South Coast 212 81.3
Southern NSW 117 81.1
North Coast NSW 113 81.0
Murrumbidgee 116 81.0
Darling Downs-SW Qld 306 81.0
Loddon-Mallee-Murray 214 81.0
Wide Bay 307 80.8
Goulburn Valley 215 80.5
Gippsland 217 80.5
New England 114 80.4
Tasmania 601 80.3
Grampians 211 80.1
Western NSW 115 80.0
Rural 1 80.5
Lower Murray 213 81.1
Central Qld 308 80.6
Townsville-Mackay 310 80.6
Country North SA 405 80.4
Far West NSW 118 77.8
Rural 2 78.2
Goldfields-Midwest 507 79.5
Far North Qld 311 79.1
Kimberley-Pilbara 508 77.6
Northern Territory 701 77.6
Central & NW Qld 309 76.1

More information can be found at http://www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au and in this report’s Technical Supplement.

1 Each Medicare Local has been assigned to a quintile group.

2 For more information on peer groups and the calculation of peer group results refer to this report’s Technical Supplement.

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